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164 Cards in this Set

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Ranking of people on the basis of unequal access to scarce resources and social rewards.
social stratification
The layering of society in terms of power and wealth
social stratification
The unequal sharing of rewards and resources
social inequality
By definition social stratification implies
Social inequality
Persons with scarce resources have a high rank and those without them have lower rank
social stratification
Division of society in such a way that results in some people getting more rewards than others
social stratification
A ranked authority structure
bureaucracy
A bureaucracy operates according to ______
specific rules
Access to social rewards is based on characteristics
determined by society
A socially defined position in a group or society
status
The behaviors expected of someone occupying a particular status
role
The norms associated with a particular status
role
Is assigned according to standards beyond a persons control
Ascribed Status
Age, gender, family heritage and race are examples of ______
Ascribed Statuses
Is acquired by an individual on the basis of some special skill, knowledge or ability
Achieved Status
Pro baseball layer, doctor and lawyer are examples of ______
Achieved Status
Both achieved and ascribed statuses can be the basis for______
social stratification
A layer of society with similar power, wealth and prestige
strata
Movement between strata is impossible
Closed system
Movement between strata is possible
Open system
The most closed type of stratification
Caste System
In a closed system a person is assigned to a strata at _____
birth
In a caste of closed system a person's strata is determined by an _____
Ascribed Status
In an open system a person's strata is determined by an
Achieved Status
In a caste system one remains in the same strata _____
throughout life
Class systems range from slightly open to _____
very open
In a caste system scarce resources and rewards are distributed on the basis of _____
Ascribed Statuses
Marriage outside one's own social category
exogamy
Exogamy is forbidden in _____
Caste systems
In a class system the distribution of resources and rewards is based on _____
Achieved Status
When social class is based on achieved statuses individuals have some control over their _____
strata
Karl Marx defined class in terms of who owns the _____
means of production
Tools, buildings, factories, farms and materials needed to produce goods and services.
means of production
Marxists divide society into
two basic classes
Two basic classes according to Marxism
Bourgeoisie & Proletariat
Owners of the means or production (capitalist society)
Bourgeoisie
Own only their own labor (capitalist society)
Proletariat
Workers who sell their labor for wages
Proletariat
According to Marx the Bourgeoisie ______ the Proletariat
exploit
Reap all the profits of a capitalist system. (according to Marx)
Bourgeoisie
A free enterprise system
capitalism
A system where wealth is distributed on the basis of competition
capitalism
Do the work in a capitalist system
Proletariat
According to Marx the relationship between the two classes is characterized by _____
exploitation
Most American Sociologists find the Marxist definition of class _______
too narrow
A grouping of people with similar levels of wealth, power, and prestige. (not strata)
social class
A rating that combines social factors with economic factors.
socioeconomic status
Is used to determine an individuals position in the stratification system
socioeconomic status
Three most common rewards on which stratification is based.
Wealth, Power, and Prestige
Most obvious dimension of stratification
Wealth
Two components of wealth
Assets and Income
Assets and income
wealth
The value of everything a person owns
assets
3/4 of the Nation's assets are controlled by ____
1/5 of the population
Ability to get people to do things they otherwise would not do
power
Marxists sociologists believe the power in the U.S. is held by the ______
owners of corporations
It may be based on force, skills, status, or personal characteristics.
power
The respect, honor, or recognition one receives from other members of society.
prestige
Prestige differs from wealth in that prestige is ____
subjective
Existing only within the experiencer's mind.
subjective
The most important source of prestige in the U.S.
occupation
View stratification as a necessary feature of the social structure
functionalists
Believe rewards must be varied or many jobs would not be filled
functionalists
A varying of rewards will result in a _____
class system
See competition over scarce resources as the cause of social inequality
conflict theorists (Marxists)
Believe stratification comes from class exploitation
conflict theorists (Marxists)
Exists in all class systems
social inequality
Use few ascribed characteristics to determine rewards.
open systems
Use scribed characteristics to determine rewards
closed systems
People are stratified according to social prestige
status system
Little opportunity to accumulate wealth and much social equality.
egalitarian system
Condition in which the same individual is give two conflicting status rankings.
status inconsistency
A wealthy woman or African American might experience _____
status inconsistency
Conflict theorists would argue that stratification is a reflection of _____ not necessity.
power
Symbolic interactionists believe, social inequality largely determines how people_____
interact with one another
U.S. law forbids discrimination based on ____
ascribed characteristics
Members of a community rank other members
reputational method
Individuals determine their own social rank
subjective method
Sociologists define class in terms of factors such as income, occupation, and education
objective method
Believe that society is dominated by a small group of people at the top of society
Power elite theorists
Small group of individuals who hold top positions in government, military and corporations
Power elite
Power elite theorists come from the _______
conflict perspective
"Old Money"
upper-upper class
"New Money"
lower-upper class
Inherited the bulk of their money
upper-upper class
Acquired wealth through their own efforts
lower-upper class
High income business and professionals.
upper-middle class
Lower income "white-collar" jobs.
lower-middle class
Tend to hold traditional values and are politically conservative
lower-middle class
Largest segment of American population
working class
Manuel labor jobs
blue-collar jobs
Blue-collar jobs (class)
working class
Jobs that have been TRADITIONALLY held by women.
pink-collar jobs
Pink-collar jobs (Class)
working class
Lowest paying jobs & unemployed
lower class
Movement between or within social classes
social mobility
Movement from one social class to another
vertical mobility
Movement within a social class
horizontal mobility
Moving to another job of equal ranking.
horizontal mobility
Vertical mobility that results in class differences in generations
intergenerational mobility
Advances in technology can result in _____ mobility.
intergenerational
Changes in societies structure can effect _____
social mobility
The mobility that results from changes in society
structural mobility
A standard of living below that which is considered decent.
poverty
Minimum annual income needed by a family to survive
poverty level
The largest percentage of people living below the poverty level are______
children
Likelihood of sharing the opportunities of society
life chances
Government redistribution of money among segments of society
transfer payments
Huge number of women bearing the burden of poverty
feminization of poverty
Believe poverty provides low wage labor and jobs for social workers
functionalists
Share inherited characteristics and are perceived to be a distinct group.
race
Cultural characteristics that distinguish one group from another
ethnicity
Individuals who share a common cultural background and sense of identity.
ethnic group
Share physical characteristics or cultural practices that result in the group being denied equal treatment.
minority group
A group of inferior power.
minority group
A minority group can actually be a _____.
majority of the population
Minority and majority groups are determined by _______.
power (or lack of it)
Minority and majority groups are defined by the _____.
culture
Denial of equal treatment to individuals based on their group membership.
discrimination
Discrimination involves _____
behaviors
An unsupported generalization about a category of people. (not stereotype)
prejudice
A negative attitude toward a certain category of people.
prejudice
Prejudice involves _____
attitudes
Discrimination upheld by law.
legal discrimination
Discrimination that is an outgrowth of the structure of society
institutionalized discrimination
Discrimination is the result of ______
prejudice
The outgrowth of traditional patterns of discrimination.
institutionalized discrimination
Type of discrimination most resistant to change.
institutionalized discrimination
A prediction that results in behavior that makes the prediction come true.
self-fulfilling prophecy
The belief that one's own race or ethnic group is naturally superior.
racism
Over simplified, exaggerated generalization about a category of people
stereotype
Placing the blame for one's troubles on an innocent individual or group.
scapegoating
Blending of culturally distinct groups into a single group with a common culture.
assimilation
Melting Pot.
assimilation
Each group within a society keeps its unique identity.
cultural pluralism
Programs designed to overcome the past effects of discrimination.
Affirmative Action
People critical of Affirmative Action consider it ______
reverse discrimination
Moving a minority to a new location
population transfer
Maintaining control over a minority group by force
subjugation
Most extreme form of subjugation
slavery
Physical separation of a minority group from the dominant group
segregation
Segregation based on laws
de jure segregation
Segregation based on informal norms.
de facto segregation
The intentional destruction of an entire group
genocide
Hitler attempted it against the Jews.
genocide
A person might not even be aware they are participating in this type of discrimination.
institutionalized discrimination
If people define situations as real they are real in their ______
consequences
Causes people to see inequality as the result of the minority group's weaknesses
racism
Is prejudiced and openly discriminatory
Active Bigot
Is prejudiced but is afraid to discriminate.
Timid Bigot
Is not prejudiced but discriminates because of social pressure.
Fair-weather liberal
Is not prejudiced and does not discriminate
All-weather liberal
Doctrine that segregation is constitutional as long as accommodations are equal.
Separate but equal
Established the separate but equal doctrine in 1896.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Overturned the separate but equal doctrine in 1954
Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education
Brown vs. Board of Education ruled that separate facilities are ______
inherently unequal
Made de jure segregation unconstitutional
Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education
The salad bowl approach
cultural pluralism
Under cultural pluralism minority groups maintain their _______
distinctiveness
The definition of race varies from _____
society to society
Ethnic groups share a distinctive cultural _____
heritage
The discrepancy between the idea of equality and the reality of discrimination
"American dilemma"
Race is culturally _______.
defined
In the 1970s in the U.S. the emphasis changed from racial integration to ______.
diversity