Essay about Computer History

460915 Words Nov 26th, 2014 1844 Pages
Kenneth H. Rosen

Discrete Mathematics and Its

Applications
SEVENTH EDITION

Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications
Seventh Edition

Kenneth H. Rosen
Monmouth University (and formerly AT&T Laboratories)

DISCRETE MATHEMATICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS, SEVENTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Previous editions © 2007, 2003, and 1999. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Rosen, Kenneth H. Discrete mathematics and its applications / Kenneth H. Rosen. — 7th ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0–07–338309–0 1. Mathematics. 2. Computer science—Mathematics. I. Title. QA39.3.R67 2012 511–dc22 2011011060 www.mhhe.com

Contents
About the Author vi Preface vii The Companion Website xvi To the Student xvii

1
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

The Foundations: Logic and Proofs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Propositional Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Applications of Propositional Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Propositional Equivalences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Predicates and Quantifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Nested Quantifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Rules of Inference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Introduction to Proofs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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