2010 Chile Earthquake Case Study Essay example

2708 Words Apr 20th, 2013 11 Pages
Earthquake Case History:
2010 Mw = 8.8 Mega-thrust Earthquake, Maule, Chile
By Travis Eddy

1. Introduction
In early 2010 central south Chile experienced a Mw = 8.8 earthquake and large tsunami waves that devastated areas on the Chilean Pacific coast, nearby offshore islands, and areas near the epicenter. In addition to the tsunami, the earthquake had many other geological consequences including aftershocks, terrestrial and submarine land-sliding, elevation changes, and a gravity shift. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and analyze the earthquake, its consequences, the resulting damages, and mitigation.

2. Geologic Setting
Figure 1: Profile of area around the epicenter (Moscoso, et.al., 2011)
The site of the
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Most of the aftershocks were located offshore near the plate interface, concentrated in low slip regions between 40 and 140 kilometers from the trench at depths ranging from 10 – 35 kilometers (Rietbrock, et.al., 2012). Focal mechanisms indicate that thrust faulting dominates the area, with some areas of normal faulting (Rietbrock, et.al., 2012).

5. Tsunami
Figure 5: Tsunami Travel Times across The Pacific Ocean
The main event caused significant seafloor uplift creating large tsunamis waves that radially propagated all over the Pacific Ocean away from the rupture [Figure 5] over a 30 ͦ arc (Yamazaki and Cheung, 2011).Chilean eye witnesses report an initial recession before the main wave followed by various smaller waves and surges (Synolakis, 2011). Eye witnesses on the offshore Juan Fernandez Archipelago described the tsunami as a “rapid high tide” (Synolakis, 2011). The maximum tsunami characteristics include wave heights of over 8 meters, flow depths reaching up to 600 meters on offshore islands and 500 meters on the mainland, and inundation at elevations up to 10 meters above sea level (Synolakis, 2011). Fishing boars washed up to 10 kilometers up river and a 3 meter diameter sandstone boulder found over 250 meters from shore at an

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